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Memory violation types

The following table provides a description of each violation type, the operating system on which the violation type is applied, and the violation type number returned by the User API.
#
Violation Type
Description
Applies To
1
Stack pivot
The stack for a thread has been replaced with a different stack. Generally the system will only allocate a single stack for a thread. An attacker would use a different stack to control execution in a way that is not blocked by data execution prevention (DEP).
  • Windows
  • macOS
  • Linux
2
Stack protect
The memory protection of a thread's stack has been modified to enable execution permissions. Stack memory should not be executable, so usually this means that an attacker is preparing to run malicious code stored in stack memory as part of an exploit, an attempt which would otherwise be blocked by data execution prevention (DEP).
  • Windows
  • macOS
  • Linux
3
Overwrite code
Code residing in a process's memory has been modified using a technique that may indicate an attempt to bypass data execution prevention (DEP).
Windows
4
Remote allocation of memory
A process has allocated memory in another process. Most allocations will only occur within the same process. This generally indicates an attempt to inject code or data into another process, which may be a first step in reinforcing a malicious presence on a system.
macOS
5
Remote mapping of memory
A process has introduced code and/or data into another process. This may indicate an attempt to begin executing code in another process and thereby reinforce a malicious presence.
macOS
6
Remote write to memory
A process has modified memory in another process. This is usually an attempt to store code or data in previously allocated memory (see OutOfProcessAllocation) but it is possible that an attacker is trying to overwrite existing memory in order to divert execution for a malicious purpose.
  • Windows
  • macOS
7
Remote write PE to memory
A process has introduced code and/or data into another process. This may indicate an attempt to begin executing code in another process and thereby reinforce a malicious presence.
Windows
8
Remote overwrite code
A process has modified executable memory in another process. Under normal conditions executable memory will not be modified, especially by another process. This usually indicates an attempt to divert execution in another process.
Windows
9
Remote unmap of memory
A process has removed a
Windows
executable from the memory of another process. This may indicate an intent to replace the executable image with a modified copy for the purpose of diverting execution.
Windows
10
Remote thread creation
A process has created a new thread in another process. A process's threads are usually only created by that same process. This is generally used by an attacker to activate a malicious presence that has been injected into another process.
  • Windows
  • macOS
11
Remote APC scheduled
A process has diverted the execution of another process's thread. This is generally used by an attacker to activate a malicious presence that has been injected into another process.
Windows
12
LSASS read
Memory belonging to the
Windows
Local Security Authority process has been accessed in a manner that indicates an attempt to obtain users' passwords.
Windows
13
RAM scraping
A process is trying to read valid magnetic stripe track data from another process. Typically related to point of sale systems (POS).
Windows
22
Zero allocate
A null page has been allocated. The memory region is typically reserved, but in certain circumstances it can be allocated. Attacks can use this to setup privilege escalation by taking advantage of some known null de-reference exploit, typically in the kernel.
  • Windows
  • macOS
23
DYLD injection
An environment variable has been set that will cause a shared library to be injected into a launched process. Attacks can modify the plist of applications like
Safari
or replace applications with bash scripts, that cause their modules to be loaded automatically when an application starts.
  • macOS
  • Linux
24
Malicous payload
A generic shellcode and payload detection associated with exploitation has been detected.
Windows